Full Longevity Suite Blood Test

The Full Longevity Suite Blood Test by AgingSOS™ is the ultimate blood test that targets your aging and empowers you to make decisions that most benefit your health. Each of the biomarkers is actionable, meaning they can be altered by lifestyle interventions or supplementation. The key to this test is...
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The Full Longevity Suite Blood Test by AgingSOS™ is the ultimate blood test that targets your aging and empowers you to make decisions that most benefit your health.

Each of the biomarkers is actionable, meaning they can be altered by lifestyle interventions or supplementation. The key to this test is that the test will guide you to better health by showing you where your body needs your attention the most. For example, chronic inflammation is a driver of aging and can lead to cancer. If you can identify and end chronic inflammation before symptoms show up, you will reduce your risk of inflammation-mediated diseases like heart disease or diabetes.

*Only shipped to mainland USA

Biomarkers Of Aging Tested For
Nicotinamide Adenine dinucleotide (NAD)
Vitamin D
Senescence- associated  beta-galactosidase
Oxidative stress
Reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM)
Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC)
Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL/HDL)
High-Density Lipoprotein (LDL/HDL)
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
Glycated Serum Proteins (GSP)
Alkaline phosphatase
Albumin
C-Reactive Protein

 

* Does Not Ship to PO Boxes

What is NAD?

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme that is essential to life and is found in every cell of all living things.  NAD facilitates hydrogen transfer through its two forms: NAD+ and NADH. NAD is required to catalyze reactions for more than 400 enzymes, more than any other vitamin-derived coenzyme. It is one of the top essential molecules for life because it is involved in many physiological and pathological functions, including energy (ATP) production in the mitochondrial TCA cycle and oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids, DNA damage repair, oxidative stress, inflammation, cellular senescence, and others.

  • Energy production: NAD is necessary for major pathways for cellular energy (ATP) production such as glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. When NAD is too low, cells cannot produce enough ATP to sustain important biological processes, leading to suboptimal health including chronic fatigue.

  • DNA repair and anti-cancer activity: Our DNA can be damaged by environmental pollutants such as radiation and toxins as well as toxic molecules produced by our cells such as reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM). Damaged DNA is usually repaired by a group of enzymes called PARP which relies on NAD+ for its function and in the process degrades NAD+ into a metabolite known as NAM. Without proper function of PARPs, our DNA accumulates damages and becomes unstable, leading to development of cancer. Another group of enzymes called sirtuins also help prevent genomic instability by increasing, together with FOXO transcription factors, the expression of antioxidant enzymes which to protect cells from damages by oxidative stress.

  • Aging and age-related diseases: NAD declines with age, and this decline is associated with loss of function and vitality and many age-related diseases.  These roles of NAD are mainly related to sirtuins that require NAD for their activation. Sirtuins are involved in six hallmarks of aging: epigenetic alterations, mitochondrial dysfunction, deregulated nutrient sensing, genomic instability, cellular senescence, and inflammation. Restoration of NAD+ levels promotes health and extends lifespan.

  • Infectious diseases and COVID-19: NAD support immune health and accelerates recovery from COVID-19.

  • NAD can also protect the brain, improve glucose intolerance, insulin sensitivity, and blood plasma lipid profiles, and support bone density and neurogenesis, improve endurance and strength, regulate circadian rhythm (sleep), and sleep intracellular calcium release.

 What is vitamin D?

The main role of vitamin D is to maintain healthy bones by helping calcium and phosphate absorption from the intestines. Not having enough vitamin D raises risk of bone loss and fractures. Vitamin D is likely beneficial for other parts of the body as well. Studies have suggested an overall decrease in death, cancer, heart disease, blood pressure, respiratory illnesses, depression, chances of having a low-birthweight baby.

Vitamin D helps the immune system stay balanced.  The way that vitamin D keeps the immune system healthy is very complex. Too much immune stimulation can result in autoimmune diseases. Insufficient immune system activity can result in frequent infections. A large prospective clinical trial showed in 2017 that vitamin D reduces the odds of developing a respiratory infection by approximately 42% in people with low baseline levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (< 25 ng/mL). Recent studies suggest that vitamin D plays a critical role in reducing COVID-19 infection and helping recovery from COVI-19 infection.

How to act on the result of Vitamin D has been the subject of great controversy in the medical field.  The blood level of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D is usually measured in nanograms per milliliter. One opinion on vitamin D deficiency is less than 12.5 ng/mL, which is found in about 6% of Americans. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) estimated that a vitamin D level of 20 ng/mL or higher was adequate for good bone health, and subsequently, a level below 20 was considered a vitamin D deficiency. In 2011, the Endocrine Society issued a report urging a much higher minimum blood level of vitamin D. It concluded that “at a minimum, we recommend vitamin D levels of 30 ng/mL, and because of the vagaries of some of the assays, to guarantee sufficiency, we recommend between 40 and 60 ng/mL for both children and adults.”

Excessive supplementation of vitamin D may be harmful. Vitamin D is stored in fat, and your fat cells can only store so much vitamin D. The result of high levels of vitamin D is high levels of calcium in the blood and potentially hypercalcemia and calcification. Too high levels of vitamin D can be immunosuppressive as well.

What is Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal)

SA-β-gal is an enzyme and considered the best biomarker for cellular senescence, which is the permanent arrest of cell growth. Senescence increases as we age and is one of the most important hallmarks of aging. Senescent cells are “zombie” cells that do not work properly, thereby negatively impacting health. Senescent cells are characterized by morphological and metabolic changes, chromatin reorganization, altered gene expression, and a pro-inflammatory phenotype known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP).  SASP proteins secreted by senescent cells, especially inflammatory cytokines, play a causative role in aging and all age-related diseases such as cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, and infectious diseases.

Senescent cells may play a protective role because of the right amount of inflammation and senescence signal for regeneration factors, and it plays a role in contributing to normal development, cell plasticity, and tissue repair, as a dynamic and tightly regulated cellular program.

While senescence can be measured in cells and tissues by a variety of biomarkers and methodologies, Jinfiniti Precision Medicine offers the first commercially available senescence test for serum or plasma. The senescence biomarker measured in blood should reflect senescence level in the whole body or pathological sites. While the precise cutoff values remain to be determined, the recommended cutoffs are based on analyses of several thousand persons without obvious diseases as well as thousands of patients with various diseases and conditions including cancer and diabetes.

Oxidative stress

 Oxidative stress (OS) is a phenomenon or physiological state caused by the imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in your body. Free radicals, all called reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) are oxygen-containing molecules with an uneven number of electrons, allowing them to easily react with other molecules. ROS are constantly produced by mitochondria in your cells as part of the physiological processes to produce energy and some pathological conditions. They can play, and in fact, they do play, several physiological roles (i.e., cell signaling).  Several biological functions, such as protein phosphorylation, apoptosis, immunity, and differentiation, are all dependent on a proper and low level of ROS. However, ROS production can be greatly increased by environmental stressors (UV, ionizing radiations, pollutants, and heavy metals) and xenobiotics (antiblastic drugs). ROS are detoxified by antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, and polyphenols from your foods or supplements. Excessive production of ROS and/or insufficient intake or detoxifying antioxidants cause the imbalance and. Excessive ROS are harmful to your body because they damage your cell’s DNA, proteins, and lipids, causing cell and tissue damage. Oxidative stress is one of the most important underlying causes of aging and aging-related diseases.

Reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) 

Reactive metabolites (ROM), reactive oxygen species (ROS), or sometimes simply called oxidants, comprise a number of oxygen-containing molecules such as superoxide radicals (O2•−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radicals (•OH), and singlet oxygen (1O2). ROS are natural byproducts of oxygen metabolism in the mitochondria. At low concentrations, ROS help fight pathogens and synthesize cellular structures. ROS can play an important role in some cell signaling pathways. When ROS production is too high, they can cause severe damages to DNA, RNA, lipids, and especially proteins and cell membranes. A large body of evidence shows that oxidative stress can be responsible, with different degrees of importance, for the onset and/or progression of many diseases (i.e., cancer, diabetes, metabolic disorders, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases).

It is widely known that large amounts of oxidants accelerate aging. However, a recent study has shown that oxidants may have some positive functions such as slowing down cell aging, raising the possibility that some oxidants, at adequate levels, may play a role in health and longevity.

Various individual ROS can be measured by a laboratory test. The ROM test measures all reactive oxygen metabolites and is, therefore, a great assessment for the overall status of oxidative stress.

Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC)

What are antioxidants? An antioxidant is a substance that inhibits oxidation and is commonly used to counteract the deterioration of stored food products. Antioxidants remove potentially damaging oxidizing agents in a living organism and protect cells from the damage caused by oxidants or free radicals. The ability of antioxidants to combat free radicals strengthens the immune system to identify and fight toxins. Detoxification of the free radicals results in less cell damage and a healthier immune system, among other benefits.

Antioxidants comprise vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and natural products. Some antioxidants are naturally produced in the body and others are contained in foods we eat. Natural or synthetic antioxidants can also be added to foods that do not normally contain them for their health benefit or for preservation to prevent oxidation in foods.

A healthy diet is the most effective way to obtain antioxidants for your body’s needs. Many fruits and vegetables and well as grains, eggs, and nuts are good sources of antioxidants. Many people do not get enough antioxidants from foods and may require supplementation for antioxidants to maintain health and combat diseases. Vitamin C and E are commonly used antioxidant vitamins. There are many other substances with antioxidant activities.

Despite the many health benefits of antioxidants, high concentrations of antioxidants from supplements may be harmful to the body. At high concentrations, antioxidants may act as pro-oxidants and increase oxidation, protect bad cells such as cancer cells in addition to good cells, reduce health benefits of exercise, and cause unwanted side effects such as nausea and headaches, or even reach toxic levels. Maintaining a healthy balance between antioxidants and free radicals (pro-oxidants) is the key for health and longevity.

Jinfiniti tests the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), your body’s overall capacity to fight free radicals. It is a photometric test that measures the biological antioxidant potential as the capacity of the serum/plasma sample to reduce iron from ferric (Fe3+) to ferrous form (Fe2+). The results are expressed in μmol/L of reduced iron.

CRP and hs-CRP

 C-reactive protein (CRP) is a substance that the liver makes in response to inflammation. The C-reactive protein test measures the amount of this protein in the blood. The test can help to diagnose acute and chronic conditions that cause inflammation. A wide variety of inflammatory conditions can cause elevated CRP levels, including infection, organ and tissue injury, cancer, obesity, autoimmune conditions, pericarditis. Very high CRP levels (>350mg/L) are almost always a sign of a serious underlying medical condition, likely a severe infection or a poorly controlled autoimmune disease or severe tissue damage.

The high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) test is different from the CRP test. The hs-CRP test detects lower levels of CRP in the bloodstream (0-10mg/L), while the CRP test measures levels in the 10-1,000mg/L range. The hs-CRP test is used to evaluate chronic inflammation and a person's risk of developing diseases and conditions such as cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and sedentary lifestyle.

There is currently no definitive standard for CRP blood levels, and guidelines vary. As a general rule, the following thresholds apply:

  • Normal levels are below 1mg/L
  • Slightly elevated levels (1 - 3 mg/L) indicate a moderate risk of developing cardiovascular disease and perhaps other diseases.
  • Moderately elevated levels (3 - 10 mg/L) usually result from chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity, tobacco smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle.
  • Highly elevated levels (10 - 100 mg/L) are usually due to significant inflammation from an infectious or non-infectious cause.
  • Extremely high levels (above 100 mg/L) are almost always a sign of severe bacterial, fungal or viral infection, and sometimes cancer.

Albumin

Albumin is synthesized by the liver and is the most abundant protein in the blood. It is essential for the body to both maintain growth and repair tissues. In healthy people, a blood albumin level of less than 3.5g/dl is considered deficient. Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines, from the National Kidney Foundation, recommend a blood albumin level of >4.0 g/dl for patients with kidney diseases.

 

Glycated Serum Proteins (GSP)

Glycation is the non-enzymatic bonding of a sugar molecule to a protein or lipid molecule. Glycated serum proteins (GSP) are proteins that have undergone glycation and circulate in the blood. The vast majority (90%) of GSP consists of glycated albumin. GSP concentration is an indication of the average amount of glucose (glycemia) in the blood over the previous two to three weeks while glycated hemoglobulin, particularly HbA1c, is a measurement of glycemia over the past two to three months. Therefore, GSP closes the information gap between daily glucose measurement and quarterly HbA1c measurement to provide a full spectrum monitoring of glycemic control for patients with diabetes. Furthermore, HbA1c may be of limited value in some situations such as pregnancy, reduced RBC lifespan and hemodialysis. GSP may be altered independent of glycemia by factors that influence albumin metabolism. Interestingly, GSP level is lower in some patients with various types of cancer and lower GSP level may be associated with poor survival in certain types of cancer, probably because of albumin deficiencies in cancer patients.

GSP are precursors of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs).  AGEs contribute to a variety of microvascular and macrovascular diseases. Studies have suggested that measuring GSP and HbA1c provides a better assessment of the long-term risk of developing diabetic complications.

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, also known as SGPT) is one of the most widely tested liver enzymes. The other one is aspartate aminotransferase (AST or SGOT). In healthy persons, these liver enzymes are predominantly contained within liver cells and to a lesser degree in the muscle cells. When the liver is injured or damaged, liver cells spill these enzymes into the bloodstream, resulting in elevated levels of AST and ALT in the blood and indicating liver diseases.  There are also other enzymes found in the liver, including alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and 5' nucleotidase. ALT and the other liver enzyme tests are used to assess liver damages from hepatitis, infection, cirrhosis, liver cancer, or other liver diseases. Other factors including medicines, age, gender, diet, body weight, and geographical location can affect ALT results.

The normal range for ALT in blood has been an issue of debate and does vary depending on testing laboratories or medical organizations and the purpose of the assay. In healthy individuals, blood ALT levels can fluctuate 10 to 30% from one day to the next and can fluctuate 45% during a single day, with the highest levels observed in the afternoon and the lowest level at night.  Our test population has a median value of 16 units per liter (U/L) in adults who do not have known liver diseases. This is comparable to the median value of 11 U/L for women and 13 U/L for men in a published report [4]. For disease diagnosis purposes, the cutoff is usually set at a very high value, 63 U/L; however, ALT should be maintained in an optimum range for health management purposes. We recommend an optimum blood ALT level between 14 and 33 U/L.

Elevated ALT increases mortality risk, not only in liver disease but also in non-liver-related ailments, particularly cardiovascular disease. Mortality jumps up by 60% -80% when ALT is twice beyond the higher of the normal range.

Whereas doctors pay more attention to elevated ALT values, lower ALT in blood has been shown to be associated with lower total-body muscle mass, lower baseline fitness, increased frailty and risk of mortality in elderlies, and increased risk of all-cause mortality in healthy, middle-aged, and elder people. The association between ALT and mortality is inconsistent and seems particularly susceptible to age. ALT is more valuable in predicting mortality in the older population. Extremely low ALT levels appear to indicate a higher all-cause, cardiovascular-related, and cancer-related mortality.

Analysis of over 10,000 nondiabetic subjects of age 21-84 years suggested an upward surge from 21 to 64 years and a discernible steady downward decline around 65 years of age.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in several tissues including the liver, bone, intestine, kidney, placenta, and white blood cells.  Damage to these tissues causes the release of ALP into the bloodstream. ALP in the blood of healthy adults is mainly from the liver, with most of the rest coming from bones. Elevated blood ALP is commonly caused by live damages, bone disorders, bile ducts, and gallbladder diseases.

ALP is used as part of the liver panel to detect liver damages, blocked bile ducts, gallstones, or bile duct tumors. It is also often used to detect any condition that affects bone growth or causes the elevated activity of bone cells, including osteoporosis, cancers that have spread to the bones, Paget disease that causes malformed bones, or other bone conditions such as vitamin D deficiency. Moderately elevated ALP may indicate other diseases, such as congestive heart failure, ulcerative colitis, Hodgkin lymphoma, and certain bacterial infections.

Blood transfusion or heart bypass surgery may cause temporally low levels of ALP. Zinc deficiency may also cause lower ALP levels.  Hypophosphatasia, a rare genetic disorder of bone metabolism, can cause severe, long-term low ALP levels.

The ALP test measures the total ALP levels in the blood.  An increase of total ALP may result from ALP specific for certain tissues that can be identified by additional tests. For example, the bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) is the bone-specific isoform of ALP. Isoenzyme analyses using electrophoresis can find out the source of the elevated ALP (liver, bone, obesity, kidney, and cancer).

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol

The liver produces cholesterol that your body needs and packages fat molecules (cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides) in very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). As VLDL transports fat to cells around your body, VLDL becomes low-density lipoproteins (LDL), the more dense particle. LDL delivers fat wherever it is needed. LDL is the “bad” cholesterol that is prone to damage by free radicals through a process called oxidization within the walls of arteries. Oxidized LDL is even more harmful to health, raising the risk of atherosclerosis, heart attack, or stroke.

Our blood test reports LDL-C, the average amount of cholesterol estimated to be contained within LDL particles. LDL-C is calculated by measuring total cholesterol, HDL-C, and triglycerides. For patients with triglycerides more than 400, the LDL-C test is not accurate. Other conditions such as severe cirrhosis also make the test inaccurate. For persons with high LDL-C, measuring oxidized LDL, a more expensive test, can provide a better estimate for disease risk.

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol

Unlike the “bad” low-density lipoprotein particles (LDL) which deliver fat molecules to cells, HDL is the “good” cholesterol that removes extra cholesterol from cells and reduces plaque buildup in your arteries, and carries extra cholesterol back to your liver where it is expelled. The good balance between HDL and LDL helps reduce your risk of atherosclerosis, heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. 

Our blood test reports HDL-C, the average amount of cholesterol estimated to be contained within HDL particles.

 

 

 

 

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