Dual II Longevity Blood Test NAD & SA-b-Gal
The Dual II Longevity Blood Test NAD & SA-b-Gal by AgingSOS™ is a blood test that targets your aging and empowers you to make decisions that most benefit your health.
Each of the biomarkers is actionable, meaning they can be altered by lifestyle interventions or supplementation. The key to this test is that the test will guide you to better health by showing you where your body needs your attention the most. For example, chronic inflammation is a driver of aging and can lead to cancer. If you can identify and end chronic inflammation before symptoms show up, you will reduce your risk of inflammation-mediated diseases like heart disease or diabetes.
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Nicotinamide Adenine dinucleotide (NAD)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme that is essential to life and is found in every cell of all living things. NAD facilitates hydrogen transfer through its two forms: NAD+ and NADH. NAD is required to catalyze reactions for more than 400 enzymes, more than any other vitamin-derived coenzyme. It is one of the top essential molecules for life because it is involved in many physiological and pathological functions including energy (ATP) production in the mitochondrial TCA cycle and oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids, DNA damage repair, oxidative stress, inflammation, cellular senescence, and others.
- Energy production: NAD is necessary for major pathways for cellular energy (ATP) production such as glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. When NAD is too low, cells cannot produce enough ATP to sustain important biological processes, leading to suboptimal health including chronic fatigue.
- DNA repair and anti-cancer activity: Our DNA can be damaged by environmental pollutants such as radiation and toxins as well as toxic molecules produced by our cells such as reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM). Damaged DNA is usually repaired by a group of enzymes called PARP which relies on NAD+ for its function and in the process degrades NAD+ into a metabolite known as NAM. Without the proper function of PARPs, our DNA accumulates damages and becomes unstable, leading to the development of cancer. Another group of enzymes called sirtuins also help prevent genomic instability by increasing, together with FOXO transcription factors, the expression of antioxidant enzymes which to protect cells from damages by oxidative stress.
- Aging and age-related diseases: NAD declines with age, and this decline is associated with loss of function and vitality and many age-related diseases. These roles of NAD are mainly related to sirtuins that require NAD for their activation . Sirtuins are involved in six hallmarks of aging: epigenetic alterations, mitochondrial dysfunction, deregulated nutrient sensing, genomic instability, cellular senescence and inflammation. Restoration of NAD+ levels promotes health and extends lifespan .
- Infectious diseases and COVID-19: NAD support immune health and accelerates recovery from COVID-19.
- NAD can also protect the brain, improve glucose intolerance, insulin sensitivity, and blood plasma lipid profiles, and support bone density and neurogenesis, improve endurance and strength, regulate circadian rhythm (sleep), and sleep intracellular calcium release.
Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal)
SA-β-gal is an enzyme and considered the best biomarker for cellular senescence, which is the permanent arrest of cell growth. Senescence increases as we age and is one of the most important hallmarks of aging. Senescent cells are “zombie” cells that do not work properly, thereby negatively impacting health. Senescent cells are characterized by morphological and metabolic changes, chromatin reorganization, altered gene expression, and a pro-inflammatory phenotype known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). SASP proteins secreted by senescent cells, especially inflammatory cytokines, play a causative role in aging and all age-related diseases such as cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, and infectious diseases.
Senescent cells may play a protective role because the right amount of inflammation and senescence signal for regeneration factors, and it plays a role in contributing to normal development, cell plasticity and tissue repair, as a dynamic and tightly regulated cellular program.
While senescence can be measured in cells and tissues by a variety of biomarkers and methodologies, Jinfiniti Precision Medicine offers the first commercially available senescence test for serum or plasma. The senescence biomarker measured in blood should reflect senescence level in the whole body or pathological sites. While the precise cutoff values remain to be determined, the recommended cutoffs are based on analyses of several thousand persons without obvious diseases as well as thousands of patients with various diseases and conditions including cancer and diabetes.